Андрей Смирнов
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Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil

How to use it

There are many ways you can use sunflower oil on your skin. These include the application of creams and lotions that contain sunflower oil as an ingredient.

You can also use organic, cold-pressed sunflower oil on your face and body for moisturizing or for massage:

  • Pour a small amount of sunflower oil directly into your palm.
  • Massage gently into skin until it is completely absorbed.
  • If you use sunflower oil on your face, try to avoid getting it into your eyes, as it may cause temporarily blurred vision.
  • Since sunflower oil is a carrier oil, you can mix a small amount of any essential oil you choose into it, for added skin benefits or for an enhanced scent.

If you are planning on using sunflower oil for your skin, it may make sense to opt for an organic, cold-pressed variety. Other extraction processes may introduce additives to the resulting oil to change or diminish its benefits.

Where sunflower oil comes from

Plants

Sunflower oil is extracted from the seeds of the sunflower plant. There are many varieties of sunflowers. Most sunflower oil comes from the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

Sunflowers are native to North and South America, and have been used as a food and ornamental source for centuries.

Process

Sunflower oil is usually obtained via cold-press extraction. It’s also acquired in mass quantities through a variety of seed pressing and crude oil refining techniques. Sunflower oil ranks as the fourth largest oil crop in worldwide industrial production today.

Products

Sunflower oil is also referred to as sunflower seed oil. It can range in color from clear to amber yellow.

Today, sunflower oil is used worldwide for cooking, and can be found in many commercially prepared and processed foods. It is also used in paint and as an ingredient in skin care products.

Functions

In cosmetics and personal care products, sunflower seed oil primarily functions as an emollient, which is why this ingredient is often added to creams, lotions, and hair care products.

As an emollient, sunflower seed oil works to soften and soothe the skin while also acting as an occlusive agent. Upon application, occlusive agents form a protective film on the surface of skin. This film helps to prevent evaporation of the skin’s natural moisture and increases skin hydration by causing buildup of water in the stratum corneum (the uppermost layer of skin).

Sunflower seed oil is also commonly used in hair conditioners and other hair products due to its emollient properties. In fact, it is the second most common base oil used in the hair oil industry, according to the Journal of Cosmetic Science. Sunflower seed oil has a softening effect on the hair and helps to prevent breakage.

The fatty acids found in sunflower seed oil help to restore the skin’s natural barrier function. A 2013 study examined the effects of sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier and found that the oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the volunteers. The stratum corneum is composed of corneocytes (dead skin cells) held together by a lipid barrier. In addition to fatty acids, the barrier consists of ceramides and cholesterol. A deficiency in these essential lipids can lead to a weak or damaged barrier, which can subsequently allow harmful things like allergens, bacteria, and irritants to pass through the skin. This results in symptoms of dryness, itching, and irritation, and may lead to the development of skin conditions like acne, eczema, and even signs of aging. Using ingredients that replenish the skin’s barrier, such as sunflower seed oil, can help to prevent these problems.

Sunflower seed oil provides anti-inflammatory effects due to its high composition of linoleic acid. Linoleic acid hydrates the skin and improves elasticity, and also has an effect on certain inflammatory mediators. The anti-inflammatory properties of sunflower seed oil make this an excellent ingredient for those with symptoms of dry, flaky, or irritated skin.

The linoleic acid found in sunflower seed oil is also thought to improve hair loss conditions by increasing blood circulation and improving skin penetration for topical hair growth treatments. Studies have found that linoleic acid may also be able to block the formation of DHT, a hormone that is linked to hair loss.

Other species

There are many species in the sunflower genus Helianthus, and many species in other genera that may be called sunflowers.

  • The Maximillian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani) is one of 38 species of perennial sunflower native to North America. The Land Institute and other breeding programs are currently exploring the potential for these as a perennial seed crop.
  • The sunchoke (Jerusalem artichoke or Helianthus tuberosus) is related to the sunflower, another example of perennial sunflower.
  • The Mexican sunflower is Tithonia rotundifolia. It is only very distantly related to North American sunflowers.
  • False sunflower refers to plants of the genus Heliopsis.

Состав


Votary Super Seed Facial Oil Fragrance Free 

Состав здесь очень насыщенный. Масло содержит аж целых 22 натуральных масла различных семян!

При этом масло Votary не содержит силиконов, консервантов и минеральных масел. Плюс, масло не содержит отдушек и эфирных масел, и оно на самом деле практически без запаха (лишь легкий аромат самих масел). Это очень здорово, так как эфирные масла могут раздражать кожу лица, причем даже если сначала всё нормально, то через неделю или месяц у вас всё равно может начаться аллергическая реакция. Таковы уж эфирные масла.

Масел здесь так много, что если описывать каждое, уйдёт полдня, поэтому приведу лишь часть масел:

Масло виноградной косточки: содержит большое количество витамина Е , повышает упругость и эластичность кожи.

Масло семян тыквы: содержит антиоксиданты, жирные омега-3 и омега-6 кислоты, магний, цинк и тд. Способствует увлажнению и восстановлению кожи.

Масло шиповника : содержит витамин А, витамин С и жирные кислоты, увлажняет кожу, способствует регенерации , а также стимулирует синтез коллагена.

Масло подсолнечника : обладает антивоспалительным действием , снижает покраснения кожи.

Масло семян клубники : богато жирными кислотами омега-3 и омега-6, даёт глубокое увлажнение, разглаживает, наполняет кожу, восстанавливает защитный барьер .

Масло конопли: повышает упругость и эластичность кожи, способствует разглаживанию морщин, защищает от старения, успокаивает, заживляет, способствует регенерации кожи . Идеально для раздраженной и сухой кожи.

Масло пенника лугового: даёт глубокое увлажнение и регулирует выработку себума.

Масло черного тмина: мощный антиоксидант, смягчает и увлажняет кожу, очищает и заживляет, обладает противовоспалительным и антимикробным действием, способствует регенерации кожи.

Масло бораго: восстанавливает липидный барьер и защитный слой кожи, омолаживает и регенерирует, возвращает коже упругость.

Масло малины: питает кожу, снимает раздражение, уменьшает поры, тонизирует кожи, выравнивает рельеф лица, даёт антивозрастной эффект.

Масло брокколи: увлажняет, питает

Масло календулы : обладает антисептическим, заживляющим, противовоспалительным, успокаивающим, антикуперозным действием. Снимает раздражение кожи.

Масло моркови : питает кожу, омолаживает и защищает кожу.

Масло граната : очищает, тонизирует, защищает, питает кожу, обладает противовоспалительным и антиоксидантным действием.

Флакончик сделан из темного зеленого стекла с удобной стеклянной пипеткой, которой можно хоть одну капельку отмерить.

Само масло довольно легкое, текучее, слегка желтоватого цвета, имеет очень слабый аромат чего-то цветочно-ягодного.

Масло впитывается без остатка и не оставляет жирности и жирного блеска.

Details

Sunflower does not need a big intro as you probably use it in the kitchen as cooking oil, or you munch on the seeds as a healthy snack or you adore its big, beautiful yellow flower during the summer — or you do all of these and probably even more. And by even more  we mean putting it all over your face as sunflower oil is one of the most commonly used plant oils in skincare.

It’s a real oldie: expressed directly from the seeds, the oil is used not for hundreds but thousands of years. According to The National Sunflower Association, there is evidence that both the plant and its oil were used by American Indians in the area of Arizona and New Mexico about 3000 BC. Do the math: it’s more than 5000 years – definitely an oldie.

Our intro did get pretty big after all (sorry for that), so let’s get to the point finally: sunflower oil — similar to other plant oils — is a great emollient that makes the skin smooth and nice and helps to keep it hydrated. It also protects the surface of the skin and enhances the damaged or irritated skin barrier. Leslie Bauman notes in Cosmetic Dermatology that one application of sunflower oil significantly speeds up the recovery of the skin barrier within an hour and sustains the results 5 hours after using it.

It’s also loaded with fatty acids (mostly linoleic (50-74%)  and oleic (14-35%)). The unrefined version (be sure to use that on your skin!) is especially high in linoleic acid that is great even for acne-prone skin. Its comedogen index is 0, meaning that it’s pretty much an all skin-type oil. 

Truth be told, there are many great plant oils and sunflower oil is definitely one of them.

Something incorrect or missing? Let us know!

References

Footnotes
  1. Jean, Roger V (1994). . p. . ISBN 978-0-521-40482-2. Retrieved 2011-01-31. fibonacci packing efficiency.
  2. Pelczar, Rita. (1993) The Prodigal Sunflower. American Horticulturist 72(8).
  3. ^ Niering, William A.; Olmstead, Nancy C. (1985) . The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Eastern Region. Knopf. p. 384. ISBN 0-394-50432-1.
  4. [permanent dead link]
  5. «Many people are under the misconception that the flower heads of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus) track the sun… Immature sunflower flower heads do exhibit solar tracking and on sunny days the buds will track the sun across the sky from east to west… However, as the flower bud matures and blossoms, the stem stiffens and the flower head becomes fixed facing the eastward direction.»
  6. Popular botany book in 17th century England
  7. ^
  8. Rieseberg, Loren H., et al. (2004). Origin of Extant Domesticated Sunflowers in Eastern North America. Nature 430.6996. 201-205.
  9. Putt, E.D. (1997). «Early history of sunflower». In A.A. Schneiter (ed.). Sunflower Technology and Production. Agronomy Series. 35. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy. pp. 1–19.
  10. SUNFLOWERS: The Secret History. (2007). Kirkus Reviews 75.23:1236. Academic Search Complete. Web. 17 November 2012.
  11. Camazine, Scott and Robert A. Bye (1980) A Study Of The Medical Ethnobotany Of The Zuni Indians of New Mexico. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2:365-388 (p.375)
  12. Stevenson, Matilda Coxe (1915) Ethnobotany of the Zuni Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #30 (p.53-54)
  13. Stevenson, p.93
  14. Awtry-Smith, Marilyn J. The Symbol of Spiritualism: The Sunflower. Reprinted from the New Educational Course on Modern Spiritualism. Appendix IV in Talking to the Other Side: A History of Modern Spiritualism and Mediumship, ed. by Todd Jay Leonard. ISBN 0-595-36353-9.
  15. ^ Gontcharov, SV. Antonova, TS. and Saukova, SL. 2006. Sunflower breeding for resistance to fusarium. Helia ; 29 (45): 49-54.
  16. Encheva, J. Christov, M and Shindrova, P. Developing Mutant Sunflower Line (Helianthus Annuus L.) By Combined Used Of Classical Method With Induced Mutagenesis and Embryo Culture Method. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science ; 14(4):397-404
General
  • Shosteck, Robert (1974) Flowers and Plants: An International Lexicon with Biographical Notes. New York: Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co. ISBN .

Threats and diseases

One of the major threats that sunflowers face today is Fusarium, a filamentous fungus that is found largely in soil and plants. It is a pathogen that over the years has caused an increasing amount of damage and loss of sunflower crops, some as extensive as 80 percent of damaged crops.

Downy mildew is another disease to which sunflowers are susceptible. Its susceptibility to downy mildew is particular high due to the sunflower’s way of growth and development. Sunflower seeds are generally planted only an inch deep in the ground. When such shallow planting is done in moist and soaked earth or soil, it increases the chances of diseases such as downy mildew.

Another major threat to sunflower crops is broomrape, a parasite that attacks the root of the sunflower and causes extensive damage to sunflower crops, as high as 100 percent.

Масло черного тмина – полезные свойства

Масло из семян черного тмина особенно популярно в аюрведической медицине , древней индийской науке о здоровье и омоложении.

Семена и их масло традиционно используются для лечения респираторных заболеваний, проблем с пищеварением, почек и печени, сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний, поддержки иммунной системы, кожных заболеваний и общего самочувствия.

«Аюрведа рекомендует, чтобы мы аккуратно нанесли масло на все части нашего тела, а затем смыли в горячем душем», – говорит Ачарья Шунья, основатель Vedika Global и президент Калифорнийской ассоциации аюрведической медицины.

Более того, черный тмин обладает антимикробными, противогрибковыми и противовоспалительными свойствами. Он также содержит необходимые витамины и минералы. Некоторые люди также используют семена для аутоиммунных расстройств. О многих его свойствах сообщалось в рецензируемых исследованиях. Мосло черного тмина эффективно для снижения уровня глюкозы при лечении диабета, для снижении артериального давления у пациентов с гипертонией, уменьшается боль в горле при тонзиллите и многое другое.

«Масло черного тмина успокаивает воспаленную кожу, уменьшает шрамы и разглаживает сухую кожу», – говорит Ребекка Ли, нью-йоркская медсестра и основатель Remediesforme.com.

Читайте так же нашу статью “Масло Орегано – полезные свойства и применение”

Usage

Sunflower seed kernels, dried
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 2,445 kJ (584 kcal)
Carbohydrates 20 g
Sugars 2.62 g
Dietary fiber 8.6 g
Fat 51.46 g
Saturated 4.455 g
Monounsaturated 18.528 g
Polyunsaturated 23.137 g
Protein 20.78 g
Vitamins Quantity %DV
Thiamine (B1) 129% 1.48 mg
Riboflavin (B2) 30% 0.355 mg
Niacin (B3) 56% 8.335 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) 23% 1.13 mg
Vitamin B6 103% 1.345 mg
Folate (B9) 57% 227 μg
Choline 11% 55.1 mg
Vitamin C 2% 1.4 mg
Vitamin E 234% 35.17 mg
Minerals Quantity %DV
8% 78 mg
Iron 40% 5.25 mg
Magnesium 92% 325 mg
93% 1.95 mg
94% 660 mg
Potassium 14% 645 mg
Sodium 1% 9 mg
53% 5 mg
Other constituents Quantity
Water 4.7 g
  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Sunflower seeds are more commonly eaten as a snack than as part of a meal. They can also be used as garnishes or ingredients in various recipes. The seeds may be sold as in-shell seeds or dehulled kernels. The seeds can also be sprouted and eaten in salads.

When in-shell seeds are processed, they are first dried. Afterwards, they may also be roasted or dusted with salt or flour for preservation of flavor.

Sunflower seeds sold by the bag are either eaten «plain» (salted only) or with a variety of flavorings added by the maker including barbecue, pickle, hot sauce, bacon, ranch, and nacho cheese as well as others.

In-shell, sunflower seeds are particularly popular in Mediterranean, Eastern European, and Asian countries where they can be bought freshly roasted and are commonly consumed as street food, the hull being cracked open with the teeth and spat out, while in many countries, they can be bought freshly packed in various roasted flavors. In the United States, they are commonly eaten by baseball players as an alternative to chewing tobacco.

Mechanically dehulled kernels are sold raw or roasted and are sometimes added to bread and other baked goods for their flavor. Sunflower seed brittle is produced by embedding the kernels in hard sugar candy. In Belarus, Russia, Ukraine and Romania, roasted ground seeds are used to make a type of halva. There is also sunflower butter, similar to peanut butter, but using sunflower seeds instead of peanuts, which is a common substitute in schools for children with nut allergies. Apart from human consumption, sunflower seeds are also used as food for pets and wild birds in boxes and small bags.

Nutrition

In a 100-gram serving, dried whole sunflower seeds provide 584 calories and are composed of 5% water, 20% carbohydrates, 51% total fat and 21% protein (table). The seeds are a rich source (20% or higher of the Daily Value, DV) of protein (42% DV), dietary fiber (36% DV), many B vitamins (23–129% DV) and vitamin E (234% DV). The seeds also contain high levels of dietary minerals, including magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, iron and zinc (40–94% DV).

Half of a 100-gram serving is fat, mainly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, principally linoleic acid. Additionally, the seeds contain phytosterols which may contribute toward lower levels of blood cholesterol.

Pressed oil

Over the decades sunflower oil has become popular worldwide. The oil may be used as is, or may be processed into polyunsaturated margarines. The oil is typically extracted by applying great pressure to the sunflower seeds and collecting the oil. The protein-rich cake remaining after the seeds have been processed for oil is used as a livestock feed.

The original sunflower oil (linoleic sunflower oil) is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (about 68% linoleic acid) and low in saturated fats, such as palmitic acid and stearic acid. However, various hybrids have been developed to alter the fatty acid profile of the crop for various purposes.

History

This species was one of several plants cultivated by Native Americans in prehistoric North America as part of the Eastern Agricultural Complex. Although it was commonly accepted that the sunflower was first domesticated in what is now the southeastern US, roughly 5000 years ago, there is evidence that it was first domesticated in Mexico around 2600 BC. These crops were found in Tabasco, Mexico at the San Andres dig site. The earliest known examples in the United States of a fully domesticated sunflower have been found in Tennessee, and date to around 2300 BC. Other very early examples come from rockshelter sites in Eastern Kentucky. Many indigenous American peoples used the sunflower as the symbol of their solar deity, including the Aztecs and the Otomi of Mexico and the Incas in South America. In 1510 early Spanish explorers encountered the sunflower in the Americas and carried its seeds back to Europe. Of the four plants known to have been domesticated in eastern North America and to have become important agricultural commodities, the sunflower is currently the most economically important.

During the 18th century, the use of sunflower oil became very popular in Russia, particularly with members of the Russian Orthodox Church, because sunflower oil was one of the few oils that was allowed during Lent, according to some . In the early 19th century it was first commercialized in the village of Alexeyevka in Voronezh Governorate by the merchant named Daniil Bokaryov, who developed a technology suitable for its large-scale extraction, and quickly spread around. The town’s coat of arms includes an image of a sunflower ever since.

During the 19th century, it was believed that nearby plants of the species would protect a home from malaria.

Among the Zuni people, the fresh or dried root is chewed by the medicine man before sucking venom from a snakebite and applying a poultice to the wound. This compound poultice of the root is applied with much ceremony to rattlesnake bites. Blossoms are also used ceremonially for anthropic worship.

Heliotropism in Helianthus annuus

Flowerheads facing east, away from the late afternoon Sun

Sunflowers just before sunset

A common misconception is that flowering sunflower heads track the Sun across the sky. Although immature flower buds exhibit this behaviour, the mature flowering heads point in a fixed (and typically easterly) direction throughout the day. This old misconception was disputed in 1597 by the English botanist John Gerard, who grew sunflowers in his famous herbal garden: » have reported it to turn with the Sun, the which I could never observe, although I have endeavored to find out the truth of it.» The uniform alignment of sunflower heads in a field might give some people the false impression that the flowers are tracking the Sun.

This alignment results from heliotropism in an earlier development stage, the young flower stage, before full maturity of flower heads (anthesis). Young sunflowers orient themselves in the direction of the sun. At dawn the head of the flower faces east and moves west throughout the day. When sunflowers reach full maturity they no longer follow the sun, and continuously face east. Young flowers reorient overnight to face east in anticipation of the morning. Their heliotropic motion is a circadian rhythm, synchronized by the sun, which continues if the sun disappears on cloudy days or if plants are moved to constant light. They are able to regulate their circadian rhythm in response to the blue-light emitted by a light source. If a sunflower plant in the bud stage is rotated 180°, the bud will be turning away from the sun for a few days, as resynchronization by the sun takes time.

When growth of the flower stalk stops and the flower is mature, the heliotropism also stops and the flower faces east from that moment onward. This eastward orientation allows rapid warming in the morning and, as a result, an increase in pollinator visits. Sunflowers do not have a pulvinus below their inflorescence. A pulvinus is a flexible segment in the leaf stalks (petiole) of some plant species and functions as a ‘joint’. It effectuates leaf motion due to reversible changes in turgor pressure, which occurs without growth. The sensitive plant’s closing leaves are a good example of reversible leaf movement via pulvinuli.

Sunflower hybrids

In today’s market, most of the sunflower seeds provided or grown by farmers are hybrids. Hybrids or hybridized sunflowers are produced by crossbreeding different types and species of sunflower, for example crossbreeding cultivated sunflowers with wild species of sunflowers. By doing so, new genetic recombinations are obtained ultimately leading to the production of new hybrid species. These hybrid species generally have a higher fitness and carry properties or characteristics that farmers look for, such as resistance to pathogens.

Hybrid, Helianthus annuus dwarf2 does not contain the hormone gibberellin and does not display heliotropic behavior. Plants treated with an external application of the hormone display a temporary restoration of elongation growth patterns. This growth pattern diminished by 35% 7–14 days after final treatment.

Hybrid male sterile and male fertile flowers that display heterogeneity have a low crossover of honeybee visitation. Sensory cues such as pollen odor, diameter of seed head, and height may influence pollinator visitation of pollinators that display constancy behavior patterns.

Mathematical model of floret arrangement

Illustration of Vogel’s model for n=1 … 500

Detail of disk florets

A model for the pattern of florets in the head of a sunflower was proposed by H. Vogel in 1979. This is expressed in polar coordinates

r=cn,{\displaystyle r=c{\sqrt {n}},}
θ=n×137.5∘,{\displaystyle \theta =n\times 137.5^{\circ },}

where θ is the angle, r is the radius or distance from the center, and n is the index number of the floret and c is a constant scaling factor. It is a form of Fermat’s spiral. The angle 137.5° is related to the golden ratio (55/144 of a circular angle, where 55 and 144 are Fibonacci numbers) and gives a close packing of florets. This model has been used to produce computer graphics representations of sunflowers.

Cultivation and uses

To grow best, sunflowers need full sun. They grow best in fertile, moist, well-drained soil with heavy mulch. In commercial planting, seeds are planted 45 cm (1.48 ft) apart and 2.5 cm (0.98 in) deep.
Sunflower «whole seed» (fruit) are sold as a snack food, raw or after roasting in ovens, with or without salt and/or seasonings added. Sunflowers can be processed into a peanut butter alternative, sunflower butter. In Germany, it is mixed with rye flour to make Sonnenblumenkernbrot (literally: sunflower whole seed bread), which is quite popular in German-speaking Europe. It is also sold as food for birds and can be used directly in cooking and salads. Native Americans had multiple uses for sunflowers in the past, such as in bread, medical ointments, dyes and body paints.

Sunflower halva is popular in countries in Eastern Europe, including Belarus, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Russia, and Ukraine as well as other countries of the former Soviet Union. It is made of sunflower seeds instead of sesame.

Sunflower oil, extracted from the seeds, is used for cooking, as a carrier oil and to produce margarine and biodiesel, as it is cheaper than olive oil. A range of sunflower varieties exist with differing fatty acid compositions; some «high-oleic» types contain a higher level of monounsaturated fats in their oil than even olive oil. The oil is also sometimes used in soap.

The cake remaining after the seeds have been processed for oil is used as a livestock feed. The hulls resulting from the dehulling of the seeds before oil extraction can also be fed to domestic animals. Some recently developed cultivars have drooping heads. These cultivars are less attractive to gardeners growing the flowers as ornamental plants, but appeal to farmers, because they reduce bird damage and losses from some plant diseases. Sunflowers also produce latex, and are the subject of experiments to improve their suitability as an alternative crop for producing hypoallergenic rubber.

Traditionally, several Native American groups planted sunflowers on the north edges of their gardens as a «fourth sister» to the better-known three sisters combination of corn, beans, and squash. Annual species are often planted for their allelopathic properties. It was also used by Native Americans to dress hair.

However, for commercial farmers growing commodity crops other than sunflowers, the wild sunflower, like any other unwanted plant, is often considered a weed. Especially in the Midwestern US, wild (perennial) species are often found in corn and soybean fields and can decrease yields.

Sunflowers can be used in phytoremediation to extract toxic ingredients from soil, such as lead, arsenic and uranium, and used in rhizofiltration to neutralize radionuclides and other toxic ingredients and harmful bacteria from water. They were used to remove caesium-137 and strontium-90 from a nearby pond after the Chernobyl disaster, and a similar campaign was mounted in response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

Cultivars

Sunflowers are grown as ornamentals in a domestic setting. Being easy to grow and producing spectacular results in any good, moist soil in full sun, they are a favourite subject for children. A large number of cultivars, of varying size and colour, are now available to grow from seed. The following are cultivars of sunflowers (those marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit):-

  • American Giant
  • Arnika
  • Autumn Beauty
  • Aztec Sun
  • Black Oil
  • Chianti Hybrid
  • Claret agm
  • Dwarf Sunspot
  • Evening Sun
  • Florenza
  • Giant Primrose
  • Gullick’s Variety agm
  • Incredible
  • Indian Blanket Hybrid
  • Irish Eyes
  • Italian White
  • Kong Hybrid
  • Large Grey Stripe
  • Lemon Queen agm
  • Loddon Gold agm
  • Mammoth Russian
  • Miss Mellish agm
  • Monarch agm
  • Mongolian Giant
  • Munchkin
  • Orange Sun
  • Pastiche agm
  • Peach Passion
  • Peredovik
  • Prado Red
  • Red Sun
  • Ring of Fire
  • Rostov
  • Skyscraper
  • Solar Eclipse
  • Soraya
  • Strawberry Blonde
  • Sunny Hybrid
  • Sunsation Yellow
  • Sunshine
  • Taiyo
  • Tarahumara
  • Teddy Bear agm
  • Thousand Suns
  • Titan
  • Valentine agm
  • Velvet Queen
  • Yellow Disk

Эффект

Эффект от масла Votary Super Seed Facial Oil Fragrance Free  мне очень понравился. Масло сразу «зашло» моей комбинированной коже .

Все масла я либо смешиваю с сывороткой и наношу на лицо, либо наношу на ватный диск , смоченный тоником , и протираю лицо. В обоих случаях на лице совершенно не остается неприятной жирности. На ночь стараюсь масла не наносить (не конкретно это, а вообще), потому как есть шанс проснуться прыщавой. Иногда я наношу чистое масло на лицо и делаю массаж лица .

Коже очень комфортно с этим маслом. Она становится более напитанной и упругой, нет ни сухости, ни стянутости в течение всего дня. Сразу после нанесения кожа становится такой холеной, более здоровой и яркой на вид. Масло действительно снимает покраснения и немного успокаивает кожу, плюс за счет этого тон кожи становится более ровный. При этом нет совершенно никакого дискомфорта, масло не щипит, не печёт, не раздражает кожу, не провоцирует воспаления и поры не забивает.

Два слова по поводу «не забивания пор» — это индивидуальный момент, к сожалению, то есть если мне и тысячам других пользователей не забивает, то это не значит, что никому не забьёт. Каждая кожа, каждый организм реагирует по-разному на тот или иной компонент, поэтому тут только самому пробовать.

Масло я наносила и на лицо, и на шею , и на зону декольте . Везде кожа стала более упругой и сияющей. Но отчего же такое расточительство ? Дело в том, что во флаконе аж 50 мл масла и оно очень экономичное к тому же! А срок годности у него всего 6 месяцев. За два месяца я вымазала где-то 1/5, может даже 1/6 флакона! Мне так видится, что масло я добить не успею до окончания срока годности.

На Cult Beauty , кстати есть маленький флакончик с маслом в 15мл и стоит это дело всего 24 фунта, что , согласитесь, уже гораздо приятнее , чем 70…

Skin-protecting barrier

Linoleic acid helps to maintain the skin’s natural barrier, supporting its ability to retain moisture. It also has an anti-inflammatory effect when used topically. This makes it beneficial for dry skin and for conditions, such as eczema.

A small study with 19 volunteers, which contrasted the benefits of topically applied sunflower oil to olive oil, found that sunflower oil was more effective at improving skin hydration and maintaining the integrity of the skin’s outer layer.

The linoleic acid in sunflower oil makes it effective for protecting skin against bacteria and germs. A study done in 2008 on premature infants in Bangladesh found that topical application of sunflower oil significantly reduced infant mortality caused by hospital-acquired infections, such as sepsis.

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